H Искусственный интеллект Nemesida WAF



Есть мнение, что искусственный интеллект — это не больше, чем маркетинговый ход. В статье мы покажем, как искусственный интеллект Nemesida WAF позволяет выявлять и блокировать атаки на веб-приложения с поразительной точностью в 99,96%.

Теория: принцип работы Nemesida AI


Машинное обучение (распознавание образов, или, как сейчас модно говорить, искусственный интеллект) применяется в тех областях, где анализ данных, проводимый человеком, становится невозможным из-за больших объемов информации или неполноты выделяемой информации. В общем, когда у нас в арсенале накопилось больше миллиона запросов к различным веб-приложениям, решение о необходимости применения машинного обучения назрело само собой.

На основе анализа научных исследований и существующих прототипов была построена схема работы Nemeisda AI, а после анализа данных сформировано признаковое пространство из элементов. Поскольку большинство признаков являются текстовыми, производилась их векторизация для дальнейшего использования в алгоритме распознавания. Поскольку поля запросов не являются отдельными словами, а зачастую состоят из последовательностей символов, было принято решение об использовании подхода на основе анализа частоты встречаемости n-грамм (TF-IDF).

Анализ имеющихся данных позволил сформировать пространство признаков, на основе которого и был построен классификатор. Задача обнаружения атак с математической точки зрения формализовалась как классическая задача классификации (два класса: легитимный и нелегитимный трафик). Выбор алгоритмов производился по критерию доступности реализации и возможности тестирования. Наилучшим образом себя показал алгоритм градиентного бустинга (AdaBoost), который позволил на 100 млн. запросов обеспечить 99.96% точности при уровне ложных срабатываний менее 0,04%. Таким образом, после обучения принятие решения Nemesida WAF осуществляется c учетом статистических свойств анализируемых данных, а не на основе детерминированных признаков (сигнатур) атак.

Недостаток сигнатурного метода обнаружения атак по сравнению с AI очевиден — высокая вероятность обхода WAF с большим количеством ложных срабатываний (от 5% до 15%). Тем не менее, сигнатурный анализ является основным источником при обучении и обеспечивает базовую защиту веб-приложения на период обучения Nemesida AI.

Атаки, ложные срабатывания и искусственный интеллект


Для того, чтобы понимать как работает Nemesida AI и какие возможности предоставляет, рассмотрим несколько примеров.

Блокирование атаки сигнатурным методом
Пример атаки, которая будет заблокирована сигнатурным методом. Такой запрос будет заблокирован из-за вхождения цепочки сигнатур «UNION + SELECT»:

Пример 1 - эксплуатация SQL Injection
POST /wp-content/plugins/answer-my-question/modal.php HTTP/1.1
Host: vulns.pentestit.ru
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Ubuntu; Linux x86_64; rv:56.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/56.0
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Content-Length: 113
Cookie: _ym_uid=1505734077122804829; _ym_isad=2; _ym_visorc_45042173=w
Connection: close
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1

id=0+UNION+SELECT+1%2C2%2C3%2C4%2C5%2C6%2Cslug%2Cterm_group%2Cname%2C10%2C11%2C12+
FROM+wp_terms+WHERE+term_id%3D1

В этом примере запрос будет заблокирован сигнатурным модулем Nemesida WAF, не смотря на частичную обфускацию:

Пример 2 - эксплуатация SQL Injection
action=getTopic&topic_id=1 anD0 unio%4e %0a sELEc%74 %23%0a 0b001110010011100100111001001110010011100100100000011101010110111001101001011011110110111000
10000001110011011001010110110001100101011000110111010000100000001100010011000100101100011000
11011011110110111001100011011000010111010001011111011101110111001100101000001100000111100000
11001101100001001011000111010101110011011001010111001001011111011011000110111101100111011010
01011011100010110001110101011100110110010101110010010111110111000001100001011100110111001100
10110001110101011100110110010101110010010111110110010101101101011000010110100101101100001010
01001000000110011001110010011011110110110100100000011101110111000001011111011101010111001101
10010101110010011100110010000001101100011010010110110101101001011101000010000000110001001000
0000101101001011010010000000101101,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,1,2 %0a&group_id=0

id=-1 uniO%6e/*a*/seLEC%74{d1},{d2},{d3},{d4},{d0},{d6},{d7},{d(%23%0aseLEC%74{a0x3c})},NULL,{d10},{d11},{d12}--

Ложные срабатывания при сигнатурном анализе
Теперь рассмотрим примеры запросов, которые не являются атаками на веб-приложение, но все-же будут заблокированы WAF. Результат обработки такого запроса — ложное срабатывание:

Пример 3 - ложное срабатывание при сигнатурном методе выявления атак
GET /function shift() { [native code] } HTTP/1.1
Host: vulns.pentestit.ru
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Ubuntu; Linux x86_64; rv:56.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/56.0
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Cookie: _ym_uid=1505734077122804829; _ym_isad=2; _ym_visorc_45042173=w
Connection: close
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1

Обработка запроса ниже также приведет в ложному срабатыванию при использовании сигнатурного метода определения атак:

Пример 4 - ложное срабатывание при сигнатурном методе выявления атак
GET /.../news HTTP/1.1
Host: vulns.pentestit.ru
User-agent: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Googlebot/2.1; +http://www.google.com/bot.html)
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Cookie: _ym_uid=1505734077122804829; _ym_isad=2; _ym_visorc_45042173=w
Connection: close
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1

Nemesida AI в действии: повышаем точность определения атак, устраняя ложные срабатывания

Рассмотрим атаки, которые не определятся сигнатурным методом, но будут заблокированы Nemesida AI:

Пример 5 - Payload Obfuscation
POST /wp-content/plugins/answer-my-question/modal.php HTTP/1.1
Host: vulns.pentestit.ru
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:52.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/52.0
Accept: */*
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Connection: close
Content-Length: 78053

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Примеры ниже (6, 7) не приведут к прямой эксплуатации уязвимости, но способны выявить наличие уязвимостей в веб-приложении, поэтому будут заблокированы Nemesida AI:

Пример 6 - выявление наличия SQL Injection
POST /wp-content/plugins/testplugin/form.php HTTP/1.1
Host: vulns.pentestit.ru
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64; rv:55.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/55.0
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: ru-RU,ru;q=0.8,en-US;q=0.5,en;q=0.3
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Cookie: _ym_uid=1501589484566174132; _ym_isad=2; _ym_visorc_45042173=w
Connection: close
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=
Content-Length: 86

— Content-Disposition: form-data; name=«id»

1 AND 1083=1083 AND (1427=1427;

Пример 7 - Выявление наличия SQL Injection
POST /wp-content/plugins/testplugin/form.php HTTP/1.1
Host: vulns.pentestit.ru
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64; rv:55.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/55.0
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: ru-RU,ru;q=0.8,en-US;q=0.5,en;q=0.3
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Cookie: _ym_uid=1501589484566174132; _ym_isad=2; _ym_visorc_45042173=w
Connection: close
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=
Content-Length: 119

— Content-Disposition: form-data; name=«id»

1 AND 2947=LIKE('ABCDEFG',UPPER(HEX(RANDOMBLOB(500000000/2))))


Nemesida WAF: до и после обучения


Абсолютную точность в своей работе Nemesida WAF демонстрирует после заверения режима обучения, а до этого момента выявление и блокирование атак будет происходить за счет сигнатурного анализа и цепочек правил. Качественно составленные сигнатуры Nemesida WAF обеспечат достойную защиту веб-приложения на период обучение с минимальным количеством ложных срабатываний.

Как только Nemesida WAF произведет обработку ~150k запросов (примерно 30 мин. для среднестатистического веб-приложения), режим обучения завершается и Nemesida AI будет активирован. Сигнатурный метод отключается и с этого момента выявление и блокирование атак осуществляется модулем Nemesida AI с точностью в ~99.96%.



Зеленое изображение мозга в личном кабинете свидетельствует о том, что Nemesida AI активирован.

Заключение


Использование машинного обучения в Nemesida WAF позволяет добиться поразительной точности выявления атак (~99.96%), свести к нулю ложные срабатывания (~0.04%) и даже определять атаки нулевого дня (0-day). Кроме этого, Nemesida AI вместе с Nemesida Scanner умеют в автоматическом режиме создавать правила VirtualPatch'а, но об этом я расскажу в следующей статье.


Искусственный интеллект Nemesida WAF — это мощный инструмент для выявления и блокирования атак на веб-приложения, а не просто маркетинг или конкурентное преимущество. Чтобы ощутить это на практике — запросите предустановленную VM с Trial-версией Nemesida WAF или активируйте облачную защиту на 2 недели бесплатно.
+19
~5200

комментарии (22)

+1
DenimTornado ,  
Просто офигительно выбрано название для искусственного интеллекта..!
+1
+6 –5
norlin ,   * (был изменён)

Давайте уже прекратим называть нейронный сети и прочие алгоритмические machine learning штуки "искуственным интеллектом" (за исключением случаев, когда эти штуки сами напишут о себе статью на Хабр).

0
+3 –3
podivilov ,  
Но ведь это действительно так! Другое дело, ежели бы автор называл это чудо «искусственным разумом».
+1
+3 –2
semmaxim ,  
Вроде как нейронные сети — это просто сложный классификатор, но никак не интеллект. Интеллект обязан ещё и принимать некоторые решения и строить выводы.
+1
+2 –1
RomanovR ,  
Машинное обучение (англ. Machine Learning, ML) — класс методов искусственного интеллекта, характерной чертой которых является не прямое решение задачи, а обучение в процессе применения решений множества сходных задач. (wikipedia)

Касательно Nemesida AI — это система, адаптирующаяся под защищаемое веб-приложение за счет построения моделей поведения, и способная выявить атаки — поэтому утверждение, что это ИИ будет верным.
–2
+1 –3
Hardcoin ,  

0.04% — это далеко от нуля. На крупном сайте с трафиком в 100 млн в неделю будет 50 тыс ложных срабатываний. Т.е. 50 тыс, когда что-то не работает, а должно. Причем не работает одно в цепочке из десятка действий. 9 товаров нормально, а купить нельзя, потому что из-за десятого происходит ложное срабатывание, например.


А для починки нужно будет приложение подпиливать, что бы запрос перестал определяться защитой, как вредоносный.


Напоминает проверку бинарника антивирусником — не написал ли случайно что-то "вредное". А здесь нужно проверять все легитимные запросы? Как-то не очень удобно, разве нет?

+4
RomanovR ,   * (был изменён)
Наличие ложных срабатываний — «обратная сторона медали», они будут в любом случае у систем, работающих в режиме IPS, вопрос только в процентном соотношении ложных срабатываний к общему количеству запросов. Если соотношение ложных срабатываний стремится, например, к 5% — это недопустимо, а 0.04% — это потрясающий в настоящий момент показатель. И большая часть таких срабатываний приходится на запросы внесения изменений в веб-приложения (то есть работа администраторов, разработчиков веб-приложения, которые могут формировать нетипичные для большей части посетителей запросы, например связанные с формированием какой-либо отчетности, с использованием синтаксиса запросов к СУБД, функций языков программирования и т.д. ). Таким образом, показатель ложных срабатываний в Nemesida WAF практически равен нулю.

100 млн. запросов в неделю, то есть 14 млн. запросов в день — что это за интернет-магазин?
Такой трафик могут дать только популярные соц. сети, интернет-магазинов (то есть сайтов, где количество ложных срабатываний влияет на выручку) нет.

Исходя из статистики, 0.04% дадут всего 1-3 ложных (если не 0) срабатываний в день для среднестатистического интернет-магазина (раз о них зашла речь), в то же время представьте размер ущерба, если сайт будет скомпрометирован. Помимо искусственного интеллекта, Nemesida WAF содержит модуль выявления уязвимостей в защищаемом веб-приложении, модуль анализа антивирусным средством, систему автоматического виртуалпатчинга (генерация и наложение патчей на обнаруженные уязвимости не дожидаясь выхода патча от производителя) т.д., которые позволяют обеспечить качественную защиту веб-приложений от атак, в том числе «нулевого дня».

P.S.: Статистика посещений: www.liveinternet.ru/rating/#
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+1 –1
AutomaticSearches ,  
Да данный подход решения задач, явно должен сменить название.
0
Frankenstine ,  
Есть мнение, что искусственный интеллект — это не больше, чем маркетинговый ход. В статье мы покажем

что это действительно так.
Чтобы быть искусственным интеллектом, система должна самостоятельно определять, где вред а где польза и иметь обратную связь по этому каналу, способную менять алгоритм определения. А то, что описано в статье — набор (в смысле процесса) статистических данных для работы фиксированного алгоритма. От интеллекта тут одно название.
+3
RomanovR ,  
Давайте оперировать терминами. По определению Artificial Intelligence это:
The theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages. en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/artificial_intelligence

“The exciting new effort to make computers think… machines with minds, in the full and literal sense.” (Haugeland, 1985)

“The study of mental faculties through the use of computational models.” (Charniak and McDermott, 1985)

“[The automation of] activities that we associate with human thinking, activities such as decision-making, problem solving, learning ...” (Bellman, 1978)

“The study of the computations that make it possible to perceive, reason, and act.” (Winston, 1992)

“The art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people.” (Kurzweil, 1990)

“Computational Intelligence is the study of the design of intelligent agents.” (Poole et al., 1998)
“The study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better.” (Rich and Knight, 1991)

“AI... is concerned with intelligent behavior in artifacts.” (Nilsson, 1998)
[Artificial intelligence: a modern approach (3rd edition) SJ Russell, P Norvig Prentice Hall, 2009]

Речь идет об одной из областей данной отрасли науки — принятие решений машиной на основе предварительно построенных ею самостоятельно моделей (задача классификации) с адаптацией при изменении условий работы. Каждый имеет право вкладывать в это понятие свой смысл, но мы ориентируемся на первоисточники.
–1
Frankenstine ,  
Нет, у вас лишь экспертная система. Они, кстати, бывают чисто механическими, например в виде бумажного графа с условными переходами между элементами. Ваша программа фактически тоже тот же граф, только в электронном виде.
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Frankenstine ,  
P.S.
ИНТЕЛЛЕКТ ИСКУССТВЕННЫЙ
1. Научное направление, в рамках которого ставятся и решаются задачи аппаратного или программного моделирования тех видов человеческой деятельности, которые традиционно считаются интеллектуальными. (См. также Представление знаний, Обучение, Общение, Объяснение).
2. Свойство интеллектуальных систем выполнять функции (творческие), которые традиционно считаются прерогативой человека.

Толковый словарь по искусственному интеллекту, авторы-составители: А.Н.Аверкин, М.Г.Гаазе-Рапопорт, Д.А.Поспелов
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RomanovR ,  
Nemesida AI удовлетворят определению искусственного интеллекта, поскольку в п.1 указано, что функция распознавания образов есть интеллектуальный вид человеческой деятельности.
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Frankenstine ,  
Образы кого распознаёт Nemesida AI, котиков, собачек, марсиан?
Поскольку большинство признаков являются текстовыми, производилась их векторизация для дальнейшего использования в алгоритме распознавания

звучит как корчеватель.
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RomanovR ,  
Машинное обучение — современное название раздела методов распознавания образов, классической задачей которого является задача классификации (в нашей постановке — задача обнаружения атак)
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Frankenstine ,  
Так я и спрашиваю — какие образы (изображения чего) распознаёт ваш якобы АИ?
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RomanovR ,  
Не якобы, а настоящий.

Ту Дж., Гонсалес Р. Принципы распознавания образов:


В контексте работы Nemesida AI — это образы атак
–2
Frankenstine ,   * (был изменён)
То, что здесь процитировано, не относится к вашей программе, обрабатывающей текстовую информацию (не образы!). «Образы атак» это тот же корчеватель: на самом деле речь о сигнатурах. И интеллектуальных свойств ваш Nemesida AI не имеет, соответственно. Обычная информационная экспертная система.
+1
+2 –1
RomanovR ,  
Приведенный фрагмент поясняет понятие образа, думаю с авторами Вы вряд ли готовы спорить. Не стоит осуществлять подмену понятий. Под «образом» следует также понимать последовательности символов алфавита, вектор признаков, числовые характеристики, ассоциированные с реальным объектом. В нашем случае атака (текстовая строка) преобразуется в вектор признаков на основе TF-IDF и дальше AI работает с вектором признаков — образом исходной атаки.
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Frankenstine ,   * (был изменён)
Какой ещё к чёрту вектор текста?! Чтобы быть вектором, нужно иметь направление в пространстве. Для векторов существует векторная математика. Ваши псевдовекторы к ним не относятся, не несите чуши! Именно вы и занимаетесь подменой понятий, маркетинговой лапшой.
Знаете чем экспертная система отличается от искусственного интеллекта, скажем, в распознавании образов?
Экспертная система распознаёт образы по составленному экспертом алгоритму, на основе описания признаков, накопленных в базе данных на этапе накопления данных, когда программе дают сочетания «образ — название — признаки».
Искусственный интеллект самостоятельно создаёт алгоритм распознавания и создавшие этот интеллект люди не могут знать заранее этот алгоритм — в общем случае алгоритм может вообще не описываться в элементарных инструкциях (нет возможности запрограммировать каким-либо языком), а обучение состоит в диалоге с ИИ, когда ему дают образы, ИИ даёт своё предположение что это за образ, и ему люди дают ответ — угадал он или нет, всё, никаких указаний признаков для ИИ не требуется — он их определяет самостоятельно.
Ваша программа не имеет никаких признаков ИИ, зато у неё все признаки экспертной системы, и нечего морочить нам голову!
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RomanovR ,  
Какой ещё к чёрту вектор текста?! Чтобы быть вектором, нужно иметь направление в пространстве. Для векторов существует векторная математика. Ваши псевдовекторы к ним не относятся, не несите чуши! Именно вы и занимаетесь подменой понятий, маркетинговой лапшой.


Не стоит считать, что определение вектора из курса школьной геометрии является единственным. Так, например, существует следующее определение:
ВЕКТОР — упорядоченный набор из некоторого количества независимых действительных чисел (x = (x1,…, xn)) [Экономико-математический словарь]. Мера TF-IDF часто используется для представления документов коллекции в виде числовых векторов, отражающих важность использования каждого слова из некоторого набора слов (количество слов набора определяет размерность вектора) в каждом документе. Подобная модель называется векторной моделью и даёт возможность сравнивать тексты, сравнивая представляющие их вектора в какой-либо метрике.

Знаете чем экспертная система отличается от искусственного интеллекта, скажем, в распознавании образов?


1) Экспертная система — система искусственного интеллекта, включающая знания об определенной слабо структурированной и трудно формализуемой узкой предметной области и способная предлагать и объяснять пользователю разумные решения. Экспертная система состоит из базы знаний, механизма логического вывода и подсистемы объяснений. [Финансовый словарь Финам.]
2) Экспертная система — система, использующая базу знаний для решения задач в некоторой предметной области. ЭС — одно из направлений ИИ. Синоним — knowledge-based system. Особый класс систем искусственного интеллекта, включающий знания об определённой слабо структурированной и трудно формализуемой узкой предметной области и способная предлагать и объяснять разумные решения. Ее основным назначением является: интерпретация данных, диагностика состояния, мониторинг, прогнозирование, планирование и обучение. [Справочник технического переводчика]

В широком смысле определения ИИ экспертная система также является его частью. В узком смысле Вашего (личного) определения Вы можете относить их к любому разделу науки.
Даже не касаясь истинности приведенного Вами довода о том, что наш модуль машинного обучения является экспертной системой, но отталкиваясь от него и опираясь на определение все равно приходим к выводу о том, что это ИИ.

Искусственный интеллект самостоятельно создаёт алгоритм распознавания и создавшие этот интеллект люди не могут знать заранее этот алгоритм — в общем случае алгоритм может вообще не описываться в элементарных инструкциях (нет возможности запрограммировать каким-либо языком), а обучение состоит в диалоге с ИИ, когда ему дают образы, ИИ даёт своё предположение что это за образ, и ему люди дают ответ — угадал он или нет, всё, никаких указаний признаков для ИИ не требуется — он их определяет самостоятельно.


Не очень понятно, с каким из пунктов определения ИИ, приведенного Вами, из Толкового словаря по искусственному интеллекту согласуется Ваше личное определение?
–5
Frankenstine ,  
Фишка в том, что искусственного интеллекта на всей планете Земля еще нет. Совсем. Экспертные системы это лишь шаг к нему. Даже IBM Watson является хоть и продвинутой, но вопросно-ответной экспертной системой. Поэтому любой, кто заявляет что у него исусственный интеллект — либо жулик, либо маркетолог, либо геймдев (ибо ИИ компьютерного противника хоть и не является ИИ, но так называется традиционно).